Panpan Zhang and Lin Shen. Circulating biomarkers for nonfunctional gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm: Where do we stand?. Oncol Transl Med, 2017, 3: 15-19.
Circulating biomarkers for nonfunctional gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm: Where do we stand?
Received: August 26, 2016  Revised: January 31, 2017
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KeyWord:neuroendocrine neoplasm; biomarker; circulating tumor cells; NETest; microRNA
AuthorInstitutionE-mail
Panpan Zhang Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of GI Oncology, Peking University, School of Oncology, Beijing Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing 100142, China zppxmu@163.com 
Lin Shen Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of GI Oncology, Peking University, School of Oncology, Beijing Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing 100142, China linshenpku@163.com 
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Abstract:
      Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) encompass a heterogeneous group of tumors associated with variable presentations, growth rates, and prognoses. The majority of GEP-NENs are nonfunctional, and their diagnosis remains challenging given the often subtle and variable clinical manifestations of these tumors. As a consequence, GEP-NENs are often recognized at an advanced stage; indeed, most patients with nonfunctional GEP-NENs exhibit metastatic disease at diagnosis. Lack of treatment options as well as limitations in currently available imaging modalities and biomarkers make it challenging to manage NENs. Thus, novel biomarkers are needed to provide high sensitivity and specificity for minimum disease detection and to predict treatment efficacy and prognosis. Although tissue-based biomarker data can provide such information, circulating biomarkers such as NETests, circulating tumor cells, and microRNAs, are superior owing to their easy accessibility and the ability for repeated real-time sampling.
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